Fractures of the spine

Fractures of the spineWhat is the mechanism of occurrence of fracture of the spine in the cervical region? Damage to the cervical vertebrae occur when sudden flexion or pererazgibanie neck. Observed while falling on his head, divers, motor vehicle injuries, especially in cases where the seat in the car is not equipped with head restraints. The parts affected are complicated by spinal cord injury of varying severity. What are the leading symptoms of the cervical vertebrae? Characterized by sharp pain in the neck. The victim often holding his head with his hands. If you need to look in the direction turns his whole torso. In the complete interruption of the spinal cord is paralysis of the upper and lower extremities with absence of reflexes, all kinds of sensitivity, acute urinary retention. Paralysis initially sluggish and only after 2-3 days goes spastic. In case of partial damage to the spinal cord injured person may feel numbness, tingling and weakness in one or both hands. What are the characteristics of the transportation of the patient? It is impossible to transfer the patient in a sitting upright position, try to tilt the head. The patient is carefully placed on the stretcher (on the back), the head is placed on a thick cushion made of clothing, or rubber circle. Special samootverjennaya stretcher fix the head and neck of the patient. Victim hospitalized in trauma, neurosurgery (spinal cord injury) or intensive care unit. What is the mechanism of occurrence of fracture of the spine in the thoracic and lumbar regions? Damage to the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae are seen in the fall on the back, at least in the direct hit (hitting trains, cars), fall from height, motor vehicle accidents with sharp bending of the body. What are the symptoms of spinal injury in the thoracic and lumbar regions? Marked pain in the broken vertebra, especially when the pressure on the spinous process, the load along the axis of the spine when the pressure on the head, Vistana posterior to the spinous process of the broken vertebra. In lean subjects, you can see the muscles of the back and lumbar (symptom reins). What are the basic principles of first aid to the victim? Patient survey and transportation carried out with the utmost care. Patients who are in a state of excitement due to intoxication or traumatic brain injury, should not be allowed to sit, stand, sharply turning torso. How to put the victim on a stretcher with a suspected fracture of the spine? If you suspect a fracture of the spine to move or rotate the victim can only be one thing; you can't turn the patient only for a trunk or limbs; head and neck should remain strictly in the frontal plane during rotation or shifting. This is especially important for victims who are in an unconscious state, who was injured when falling from a height. In order to shift the victim, you need at least 3 people: one is located near the head and neck of the victim, the second body, the third leg. Putting your hands, turn the victim on his back on the team "turned" after laying on his back, link arms by the wrists and his legs at the knee joints and ankles. At the head of the victim set the stretcher, on which area the location of the waist put a roll of towels or clothes. Lift the patient by the command "raised", drawing attention to the fact that it wouldn't SAG in the back. Fourth assistant pushes the stretcher under the victim, which put them on the command "put". What is shock therapy? In the presence of shock conduct antishock therapy, administered narcotic analgesics (omnopon, promedol). Required hospitalization in the Department of trauma, multiple trauma and shock in the intensive care unit. How to care for the victims, if the fracture is not accompanied by damage to the spinal cord? If the fracture is not accompanied by damage to the spinal cord, the victim is placed on his back on the bed. Under the mattress previously placed a wooden Board. Under the lumbar region enclose the roller in the form of a bag of sand. Under the head of the patient should be flat pillow. In further provide total care for victims, give painkillers inside (dipyrone 0.5 g 3 times a day)..



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